Business management is today one of the most sought after careers. Until recently, management in India generally meant supervising workers in a factory or on the shop floor. With the growing complexity of all commercial activity and in the face of current challenges of inflation, a profit crunch, and the entry of multinational competitors the business community has recognized the urgent need to strengthen its operational base with systematic and efficient management practices.
Companies are becoming more streamlined and professionalised in the process, creating a huge demand for competent personnel at all levels. Not only is this happening in the organized sectors of commerce and industry, but in traditionally non-organized areas like agriculture and handicrafts as well.
Even non-commercial establishments in the areas of welfare and development, health, education and the arts, are realizing the necessity of professional management. For aspirants in the employment market this has opened limitless opportunity in diverse spheres with the promise of rewards in the form of good remuneration, status, and scope for professional and personal growth.
Though there are more women in management now than a decade ago, this appears only to be evidence of an overall national rise in the percentage of women working outside the home, Even so, few women hold top level posts. This is perhaps due to a persisting attitudinal bias against female managers in this predominantly male preserve where aggressiveness is an asset, essential to success.
Significantly career structures designed exclusively for men, tend to force women to quit or remain at the same level after reaching a certain position. So far, women have done better in large organizations than in small and medium-sized companies They generally do well when running their own business
These customary patterns are, however, now being challenged by new management philosophies that lay emphasis on establishing and maintaining good personal relations and a participative style of functioning.
Women managers with their inherent interpersonal skills are coming into greater demand. This trend is reflected in the number of female students currently enrolling in MBA courses, which in some institutions can be as high as 40 per cent of the total classroom population. In this achievement-oriented profession where results count more than years experience, bright, hardworking young people can rise to positions fairly quickly.
Professional managers depending on individual skills a usually-usually operates within one of five define functional areas. These might vary slightly with organizations, overlapping in some or being further sub-divided in others, but broadly these departments are:
This department deals with functions like recruitment training, placement, promotion, transfers and day-to-problems like leave, labor, discipline, grievances dismissal. Its most important responsibility is putting right person in the right job.
Draws up budgets, executes financial programmes Business Management undertakes transactional analysis. This department also conducts profitability appraisals and is responsible for the organization's financial policies.
Production, Operations and Scheduling
This is a vast area that encompasses the management of:
The process by which the physical output of the organization is planned. The production department directs, coordinates and controls operations. It is also responsible for product research, development and design; process development and design; specification and procurement of
materials and supplies; standardization, inspection, testing and quality control; study and preparation of the work standard; and cost analysis and control.
Which involves the coordination of planning, sourcing, purchase, moving, storing and controlling materials in the manner best suited to improve profitability. Its most important task is the procurement of good quality raw materials at minimum cost and their utilization without
Responsible for the procurement, maintenance and running of all machinery and equipment of manufacture. As breakdowns can result in large losses for the organization, this department's main task is to ensure that the equipment is always in good working condition.
Organizes, coordinates and supervises the efficient utilization of men, money and materials.
Reaches out to the public. The marketing department directs the flow of goods and services from the producer to the end user, with increased emphasis on the profit objective. Marketing management involves the planning of strategy to deliver goods and services efficiently and inexpensively to the customer.
This area is beginning to play a very large role management. It involves the collection, processing dissemination of information through the operation management of computer systems.