Building and construction is one of the largest organized economic activities in of India, as it is elsewhere in the world. It meets the second most important need of human beings, after food-that of shelter. From a village hut to a skyscraper, and from roads and bridges to mighty stadiums and majestic dams, every human pursuit entails building and construction.
It is a multifarious yet unorganized industry spread over the public, private and co-operative sectors, employing a variety of talent in research, innovation, planning and development. The building and construction industry, whose annual turnover runs into hundreds of billions of rupees, has a special significance as it commands the highest employment potential.
From high-caliber entrepreneurs and technocrats to unskilled labourers, about twelve million persons are engaged in the building and construction industry in India, meeting the housing needs of the people as well as the needs of the non-housing sector such as industry, commerce, transport, social services, defense, etc.
The construction industry provides employment to various categories of workers outside India also.
MAIN AREAS OF WORK
In the construction industry, right from the first concept on paper to the finished product, an enormous range of talent and expertise is needed. On the one hand, the services of architects, engineers, and contractors, and on the other hand carpenters, bricklayers, electricians, etc. put thoughts into action, to shape the final product.
Work in this industry can be broadly categorized into the public and co-operative sectors, and the private sector. The Ministry of Urban Development controls several organizations
which are responsible for the construction and, maintenance of government buildings, including residential accommodation, and for the management of government land and property. These organizations are:
Central Public Works Department, the principal agency for the construction and maintenance of all Central government projects such as housing, commercial complexes, educational institutions, sports complexes, hospitals, workshops, factories, airports, roads, bridges, etc.
Housing and Urban Development Corporation, with its headquarters at New Delhi, and fourteen regional offices, which finances or undertakes the setting up of housing schemes in towns and villages throughout the country.
Town and Country Planning Organization, which is the apex technical advisory body on urban development matters with regard to research, planning strategies, and monitoring and evaluation of government building schemes.
National Building Organization, which promotes research in building materials and housing and construction techniques. National Building Construction Corporation Limited, which undertakes the execution of a variety of civil construction contracts, such as roads, bridges, industrial structures, etc., and also provides consultancy services in this field.
Development authorities of several cities and towns, responsible for land, housing and other infrastructural needs of a growing population, particularly with regard to development of housing schemes.
There are a large number of autonomous bodies involved in this sector, in the areas of civil construction works, and in research and advisory roles. In recent years, several private business organizations have also taken up construction projects, providing employment opportunities to trained personnel.