Weights and Measures
Most food products are sold in stores by weight. Most recipes are stated in units of dry or liquid volume. The units used will be cups or fractions of a cup, tablespoons and teaspoons. Measuring cups and spoons are available at supermarkets and discount or department stores. Drinking cups and eating spoons should not be used as substitutes for these measuring utensils. Recipes will often use abbreviations, which are fisted below with some equivalents. These are volume measurements.
1 T. or 1 tbsp. = 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
1 t. or 1 tsp. = 1 teaspoon
1 C. = 1 cup = 16 tablespoons
1 lb. = 1 pound = 16 ounces
oz. = Ounce
Pt. = Pint = 2 cups = 16 ounces
Qt. = Quart = 4 cups = 32 ounces
Gal. = gallon = 4 quarts
Net wt. = weight of contents not including container weight
1 tsp. = 5 cubic centimeters = 5 milliliters
1 tbsp. = 15 cubic centimeters
1 oz. = 30 cubic centimeters
1 pt. = 500 cubic centimeters = 1/2 liter
1 qt. = 1 000 cubic centimeters = 1 liter
1 gal. = 3.785 liters
The metric system is not in everyday use in the United States. (It is used in scientific laboratories.)
Here are a few conversions:
1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 meters
1 yard = 3 feet = 0.9144 meters
1 meter = 39.37 inches = 3.28 feet = I .09 yards
1 mile = 1 .6 kilometers
1 British gallon = 1.2 U.S. gallons
1 liters = 10.57 liquid quarts = 10 deciliters
1 deciliter (dcl) = 6 tbsp. + 2 tsp. = 3.38 U.S. fluid ounces
I pound = 16 ounces = 453.59 grams
1 gram = 0.35 ounces
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds
The United States uses the Fahrenheit scale for thermometers measuring body, cooking and air temperature. Thermometers in scientific laboratories use the centigrade scale.
To convert degrees F. (Fahrenheit) to degrees C. (centigrade), subtract 32 from the F. measure, multiply the result by 5, and divide by 9. To convert degrees C. to degrees F., multiply the C. measure by 9, divide by 5, and add 32 to the result.
Normal body temperature measured with an oral (mouth) thermometer is 37 C. or 98.6 F.
U.S. CLOTHING SIZES
Infant clothing (for babies under eight months of age) comes in sizes marked according to age, such as three months, six months or nine months. Because babies grow so fast and baby clothes tend to shrink from constant washing, it is advisable to buy one size larger than your baby's age.
For children between the ages of one and six years, sizes are determined by the following measurements, which are given in inches.
Suit sizes run 36. 37, 38, 39, 40, etc. These sizes are determined by the number of inches around the chest. Suit sizes also include a long, regular and short category. Measure from the point where the collar joins the jacket to the end of the jacket. Short length is 28-1/2 to 29-1/2 inches. Therefore, a suit size will be "30 long," "4l regular" or "40 short." for example.
Shirt sizes are determined by the number of inches around the neck and the number of inches from the middle of the back of the neck, across the shoulder and down the elbow to the wrist. Shirt sizes are therefore a combination of the two figures, the neck measurement and the shirt-sleeve length, such as " 15-31," " 1 4-33" or " 16 1/2-34."
Shoe sizes run 8, 8-1/2, 9, 9-1/2, 10, etc. These numbers do not refer to an inch measurement; they are arbitrary figures. Shoes also come in widths; A and B are narrow widths; C is average width; and D and E are wider than average width. Therefore your shoe size will be a combination of a number and a letter, such as "8-1/2 D," "9 B" or " 10 C."
The size of trousers and undershorts are determined by waist measure.
Coats. skirts. dresses and suits come in regular or misses' sizes, and in junior sizes. Regular sizes are denoted by even numbers: 6, 8, 10, 12 etc. Junior sizes are sized in odd numbers, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc., and are usually shorter in length from shoulder to waist and narrower in the waist than regular or misses' sizes. Often teen-aged girls will fit into these sizes better than in smaller girls' sizes.
Sweater and blouse sizes are sometimes given in bust measurement (inches- only, such as size 32 or 36; even numbers are used. Slip sizes are also determined by bust measurement and most slips come in short, regular and long lengths. Your slip size will be a combination of a number and a word for length, such as "32 short," or "36 long." As slip sizes vary considerably from manufacturer to manufacturer, it is always wise to try on the slip before you buy it.
Shoe sizes run 4-1/2, 5, 5-1/2, 6, 6-1/2, etc. These numbers do not refer to an inch measurement; they are arbitrary figures. Shoes also come in widths: A, AA, AAA for narrow widths; B for average width; and C and D for wider than average widths. Your shoe size will be a combination of a number and a letter, such as "5-1/2 AA," "7 B," or "8 C."